Helpful Information
Helpful Information
Incoterms
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Incoterms

Incoterms 2010 (International commerce terms) - international rules on the interpretation of the most widely used trade terms in the field of foreign trade. International trade terms are standard terms of the contract of international sale which are defined in advance in an internationally recognized document. Effective from January 1, 2011.

On September 16, 2010, the International Chamber of Commerce announced the release of a new edition on the use of national and international trade terms. The Incoterms 2010 rules reflect the current trends in the development of international trade that have evolved since the last edition of the Rules in 2000. The total number of terms has been reduced from 13 to 11. Also in the Rules there are 2 new terms: DAT (Delivery at the terminal) and DAP (Delivery in the item).
In addition, the new version contains a small guide to each term to help users of the Incoterms 2010 Rules choose the desired term. Each term Incoterms 2010 (Incoterms 2010) is an abbreviation of three letters. Terms can be divided into 4 groups:

 Group E - Departure place:

 EXW. Ex Works (indicated location): goods from the seller's warehouse.

 Group F - Basic Carriage Unpaid:

 FCA. Free Carrier (specified location): the goods are delivered to the carrier of the customer.

 FAS. Free Alongside Ship (the port of loading is indicated): the goods are delivered to the ship of the customer.

 FOB. Free On Board (the loading port is indicated): the goods are loaded onto the ship of the customer.

 Group C - Basic Carriage Paid:

 CFR. Cost and Freight (the port of destination is indicated): the goods are delivered to the customer's port (without unloading).

 CIF. Cost, Insurance and Freight (the port of destination is indicated): the goods are insured and delivered to the customer's port (without unloading).

 CPT. Carriage Paid To (indicated destination): the goods are delivered to the carrier of the customer in the specified place of destination

 CIP. Carriage and Insurance Paid to (indicated destination): the goods are insured and delivered to the carrier of the customer at the specified place of destination

 Group D - Delivery (Arrival):

 DAP. Delivered at Place: Delivered at destination

 DAT. Delivered at Terminal: Delivery on the terminal

 DDP. Delivered Duty Paid (indicated destination): the goods are delivered to the customer, cleared of duties and risks

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Transport documentation for registration of exports to the EU
Transport documentation for registration of exports to the EU

Depending on the vehicle, it is necessary to fill out and submit to the customs services of the importing Member of the European Union (EU) when importing the goods the following documents for its registration:

Bill of Lading (BL)
It is given out by the transport company to the cargo carrier and confirms that the goods have been accepted for transportation. Thus, the bill of lading is proof of receipt of the goods by the carrier obliging him to deliver the goods to the consignee. It contains information about the cargo, ship and destination. He confirms the transportation contract and transfers the right to the goods, which means that the owner of the bill of lading is the owner of the cargo. A bill of lading can be a transfer document. Several different types of bill of lading can be used. The "clean bill of lading" confirms that the cargo was received in a good appearance. "Unclean or bills of lading with reservations" indicate the damage or poor condition of the goods, in which case the financing bank may refuse to accept the shipper's documents.

The FIATA bill of lading
A document intended to be used as a transport document for intermodal or combined transport, which has the status of being transferred. Developed by the International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations (FIATA).

Motor waybill (CMR)
Document containing information on the international carriage of goods by road, established by the Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road (1956) (Convention CMR). It allows the consignor to have the goods at his disposal during the transportation. The motor waybill shall be made in four copies and signed by the consignor and the carrier. The first copy is intended for the consignor, the second remains in the carrier's possession, the third accompanies the cargo and is transferred to the consignee, and the fourth should be signed and sealed by the consignee and then returned to the consignor. As a rule, CMR consignment notes are issued for each vehicle. The motor waybill CMR is not a document of title and is not transferable.

Air Waybill (AWB)
A document that is proof of the contract of carriage concluded between the consignor and the carrier company. It is compiled by the carrier's agent and must comply with the Warsaw Convention (Convention on the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air, signed in Warsaw on October 12, 1929). One air waybill can be used to transport several cargoes; it must have three originals and several additional copies. The originals are transferred to each of the parties involved in the transportation (consignor, consignee and carrier). Copies may be required at the airport of departure / arrival for delivery and in some cases for further transportation. Air waybill is a waybill for cargo, which indicates the existence of a contract for transportation and provides the fact of receipt of the goods. There is a special type of air waybill used by all cargo carriers belonging to the International Air Transport Association (IATA); such waybill is called the United Air Waybill IATA. It corresponds tostandard conditions set by the Warsaw Convention.

Railway bill of lading (CIM) is a document necessary for transportation of goods by rail. Its content is determined by the International Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Rail, dated 1980 (COTIF-CIM). The railway transport waybill CIM is compiled by the carrier in five copies, the original accompanies the cargo, a copy of the original remains with the consignor, and three other copies of the carrier for domestic purposes. It is considered an agreement for the carriage of goods by rail.

Carnet ATA
ATA Carnets (Admission Temporaire) are international customs documents issued by the chambers of commerce of most developed countries as a permit for temporary importation of goods, without the imposition of customs duties and taxes. ATA carnets can be issued for the following categories of goods: samples of goods, professional equipment and products for presentations or trade fairs, demonstrations, exhibitions, etc. For more information, see the website: International Chamber of Commerce: ATA Carnets.

TIR Book
Customs transit documents used for the international transport of goods, during which road transport should be used in part. They allow the transport of goods using a procedure called the TIR procedure (established by the TIR Convention of 1975, signed under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).) The TIR system requires the carriage of goods in safe vehicles or containers, all customs duties and taxes that may arise during transportation must be covered by an international guarantee, the consignment must accompany the TIR Carnet, and the customs control measures of the consignor country must be recognized by the country s transit and destination.

Cargo insurance
The scope of insurance liability includes widespread risks arising in the process of moving, storing, loading and transporting goods, as well as less likely risks, such as riots, strikes or terrorist attacks. Distinguish between cargo insurance and carrier liability insurance. Covered risks, fixed compensations and the duration of the contract of transport insurance are set at the discretion of the policyholder. However, carrier liability insurance is governed by other rules. Depending on the mode of transport, liability is limited by the weight and value of the goods and is provided only if the transport agent could not evade responsibility. An insurance invoice is required for customs clearance only if the relevant data indicating the insurance premium for the insurance of the goods is not available in the invoice.

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Phytosanitary. Key concepts.
Phytosanitary. Key concepts.

When importing plants and products of plant origin (including fruits, vegetables and forest products) into the EU, it must be ensured that the products comply with EU phytosanitary legislation. The main goal of phytosanitary measures is to prevent the import and spread of organisms that damage plants and products of plant origin in the EU. The main requirements imply that:

• certain specified organisms are prohibited for importation into the EU territory, except for special circumstances;

• these plants or products of plant origin must be accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate.
It should be noted that phytosanitary requirements also apply to wood used for packaging, wooden platforms or non-food products. Therefore, even if the main object of export is, for example, fish products or toys, it is necessary to take into account phytosanitary requirements in case of using wood for packing and transportation of goods. Vegetable products that have been processed, for example, pieces of furniture or wooden products, do not have to meet these requirements. When imported into the EU, plants and products of plant origin must:

• accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate issued by the competent authority
exporting country;

• pass customs checks at the point of entry into the EU territory;

• Imported into the EU by an importer officially registered in a Member State;

• be declared with the customs authorities before arrival at the border crossing point.
If shipments of plants or plant products from third countries may pose a risk within the EU, Member States or the European Commission may take temporary emergency measures.

Additional requirements.

Seeds and planting material must meet special requirements designed to ensure compliance with health and quality assurance criteria. Special conditions apply to:

- oilseeds and fibrous crops;

- grain crops;

- vegetables;

- seed potatoes;

- beets (sugar and fodder);

- Grape crops;

- fruit plants;

- fodder plants;

- ornamental plants;

- timber.

All over the EU, there are rules aimed at protecting the rights to varietal diversity of plants. This system is used by the European Community for the Protection of Plant Manufacturers (CPVO).
Further information on EU phytosanitary requirements.

EU legislation Directive 2000/29 / EC (the Phytosanitary Directive) establishes requirements that prohibit the importation of organisms that damage plants and plant products or spread them to the EU. The phytosanitary guideline applies to the following products:

• Plants: living plants and certain living parts of plants, including seeds. This category includes:

- fruit, vegetable sense, other than frozen at low temperatures;

- vegetables, other than frozen at low temperatures;

- tubers, corms, bulbs and rhizomes;

- Cut flowers;

- branches with foliage;

- felled trees with preserved foliage;

- foliage;

- culture of plant cell tissues;

- live pollen;

- trees with buds, logging waste and shoots;

• Products of plant origin, unprocessed or processed simply, so that they are no longer plants.

The EU legislation complies with the following international laws:

• The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) of the Food
agricultural organization of the United Nations.

• Agreement on sanitary and phytosanitary measures of the WTO.

• Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
When exporting wild flora and related products, it is necessary to take into account the EU requirements for threatened extinction (also known as CITES requirements). Some types of imports are prohibited in the EU, others require special export and / or import certificates.

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CE conformity marking
CE conformity marking

CE marking (abbreviation of Conf.Conformité Européenne - "European conformity") is a special mark applied to a product that certifies that the product conforms to the basic requirements of the directives for harmonized European Union standards, and that the product has passed the conformity assessment procedure with the directives. The CE marking indicates that the product is not harmful to the health of its consumers, nor is it harmless to the environment.
CE marking:
• has a uniform form in the form of a "CE" sign, indicating the identification number of the authorized organization involved in the production control phase, if third party assistance was required;
• applied to the product itself, its packaging or accompanying document;
• allows the distribution of the product in the EU market.
Certification of products in the countries of the European Union with the right to apply CE mark on products is regulated by Decision No. 768/2008 / EC of the European Parliament, adopted on July 9, 2008. This decision was made with the aim of promoting technological innovation and increasing the competitiveness of European industry, in order to regulate the turnover of products in the internal market of the European Community and introducing a clearer framework for determining conformity of products to harmonized EU standards and EU Directives, for which products are subject to CE marking CE Mark). The following products fall under the action:
children's toys (Directive 2009/48 / EC)
construction products and materials (Regulation 305/2011 / EU) - enters into force on July 1, 2013, repeals the directive 89/106 / EEC on construction materials, is mandatory. According to Regulation 305/2011, the FPC system is mandatory for production. FPC is introduced exclusively by the accredited structures of the European Union, with annual confirmation. Manufacturers in the production of products with the right to apply the CE mark constitute the Declaration of Performance (DoP)
personal protective equipment (Directive 89/686 / EEC)
non-automatic weighing instruments (Directive 2009/23 / EC)
New boilers (boilers) operating on liquid or gaseous fuels (Directive 92/42 / EEC)
medical equipment (Directive 2007/47 / EC)
instruments and protective systems for use in explosive atmospheres ATEX (Directive 2014/34 / EU)
systems and installations (equipment) operating under pressure (Directive 97/23 / EC)
radio communications and telecommunications terminal equipment (Directive 1999/5 / EC)
Measuring devices (Directive 2004/22 / EC)
electromagnetic compatibility (Directive 2014/30 / EU)
machinery and equipment (Directive 2006/42 / EC)
low-voltage systems, electrical safety (Directive 2006/95 / EC)
simple pressure receptacles (Directive 2009/105 / EC) new simple pressure receptacles directive, which entered into force on 20 April 2016 in Russian - Directive 2014/29 / EC
gaseous fuel combustion devices (gas-fired installations) (Directive 2009/142 / EC)
explosives for civil purposes (Directive 93/15 / EEC)
rope installations intended for the transport of people (Directive 2000/9 / EC)
Lifts and lifting mechanisms (Directive 95/16 / EC)
active implantable medical devices (Directive 90/385 / EEC)
medical products for laboratory in-vitro diagnostics (Directive 98/79 / EC)
pleasure craft (Directive 94/25 / EC).

All products falling under these Directives and placed on the market of the European Union are subject to CE marking. All entities responsible for placing products on the EU internal market are obliged to monitor the compliance of information on product safety and potential risks and must bear adequate responsibility for the distorted information or lack of information as such. The information must be accurate, complete and in accordance with the applicable rules of the European Union. The manufacturer is obliged to verify that his products are designed and manufactured in accordance with the requirements specified in the European standards (harmonized standards) and EU Directives relevant to this product. A certain responsibility for product safety rests with distributors and importers, responsibility is defined by Decision No. 768/2008 / EC. Harmonized EU standards prescribe conformity assessment of products. Conformity assessment - the procedure for certification or verification of products, is carried out through modules. Depending on the type of product, product description and its functional features, present or potential risks, the need for a third independent party to participate in the conformity assessment, a module is selected to conduct the conformity procedure. For products that have confirmed compliance with harmonized standards and are covered by the EU Directives, implying certification of products, according to the modules, the CE marking must necessarily be marked. The CE mark is the only sign of compliance with European standards and Directives. The rules for applying the CE mark (s) are defined by the Directives, Decisions, Regulations and harmonized standards. When marking the product, additional signs and markings, such as electrical safety, ATEX, RoHs, fire hazard class, etc., can be applied. The conditions for applying additional markings are determined by the Directives and harmonized standards. The states of the European Union should rely on the existing mechanisms to ensure the correct application of the regime governing the CE marking and take appropriate measures in case of misuse of the CE marking, should also provide for sanctions for violations that may include criminal sanctions for serious violations. These penalties should be commensurate with the gravity of the crime and constitute an effective deterrent against the misuse of the CE marking.